How to cite the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Method 1 of 3: Citing the Declaration of Universal Human Rights with the APA
- Create a sentence for the quote. The first step is to create a phrase or sentence that quotes or paraphrases the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Otherwise, the document does not need to be cited.
- For example, you could write “As the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: ‘All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.'”
- Make an in-text citation. The in-text citation is placed at the end of the sentence. It starts with organization. In most cases, citations begin with the author’s last name. In this case, there is no author name but an organization (an assembly or council) that has written and approved a document collectively: The UN General Assembly. Therefore, it is with this that the appointment should begin. Then, a comma and the date must be added.
- In the previous example, it would be written: “As the Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirms: ‘All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights” (UN General Assembly, 1948).
- The citation must go in parentheses, after the quotation marks, and before the period.
- You can also include the citation at the beginning of the sentence, as in the following example: As determined by the UN General Assembly (1948) more than 60 years ago, all people have inalienable rights at birth.
- Make a final reference. The final reference provides further information to the reader by helping them find the document. Since this document is quite common, it is not necessary to include as much information as in any other citation. However, it is best to include as much information as possible.
- The appointment should be this way: UN General Assembly. (1948). Universal Declaration of Human Rights (217 [III] A). Paris.
- The designation 217 (III) refers to the document number. In addition, the general assembly was convened in Paris, so it should be added as a location.
- Add the website, if preferred. Since the UDHR is a highly sought-after document, a web address does not strictly need to be added. In any case, adding it does not hurt as it would inform the reader where to find the complete information.
- The full citation would be as in the following example: UN General Assembly. (1948). “Universal Declaration of Human Rights” (217 [III] A). Paris. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/
Method 2 of 3: Citing the UDHR with the MLA
- Begin with a sentence that requires a citation. Again, verbatim or paraphrased sentences referring to the content of the UDHR will be needed. This is the only reason you will need to include an in-text citation.
- The same example above will be used: “As the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: ‘All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.'”
- Add an in-text citation. As with the APA model, you will need to put the citation in parentheses. APA, the citation will normally be written at the end of the text (with the exception of citing two different sources in the same sentence). The name of the author will be needed, which in this case will again be the UN General Assembly. Instead of citing the date, write the number of the article that is being cited
- Thus, the citation should read: As the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights” (United Nations General Assembly art. 1).
- Add a final reference. The MLA has recently updated its style guidelines allowing for more flexibility. It is about having as much information as possible in the citation, based on the 9 key elements: author, source title (such as the name of the book), provider title (such as a longer previous work or the website that contains the full text). or several texts), contributions or additional contributions, version, number, publisher, date of publication, and location. Naturally, not all sources will provide this information in its entirety, so only as much as is available will be included.
- Therefore, the final reference should be as the following example: UN General Assembly. “Universal Declaration of Human Rights.” “United Nations,” 217 (III) A, 1948, Paris, art. 1, http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/. Accessed September 6, 2016.
Method 3 of 3: Citing the UDHR in Chicago
- Begin with a sentence or phrase that requires a citation. You should always start with a sentence that needs to be quoted. Usually, it will be a verbatim or paraphrased sentence of some content of the UDHR. In addition, the information should contribute something to the essay.
- The same example can be used: “As the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: ‘All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.'”
- Use a footnote. As with the APA or MLA, information will be added to the sentence to let the reader know where it was taken from. However, unlike APA or MLA, the Chicago style requires the use of a footnote. A footnote places a small number at the end of the phrase or sentence, after the period, which will then correspond to the number at the bottom of the page, where the citation information will be added.
- Go to the end of the sentence and add a footnote. To add the footnote, you must first place the cursor after the period or the quotation marks (whichever appears last). Next, go to “References” in the word processor you are using to create or edit the document, and choose the “Insert endnote” option. This action should place a number at the end of the sentence and at the end of the page at the same time.
- It should look like the following example: As the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states, “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.” sup>1
- Write the information in the footer. Go to the corresponding note in the footer, at the end of it. Add the quote. Unlike the APA or MLA, all citation information will be included in this footnote.
- Start with the organization, followed by a comma and the title. Then a parenthesis will open, followed by a phrase that identifies the type of source, place of publication, and the year, and the parenthesis will close. In the end, the location of the original information, such as the page or article number, will be included.
- As an example, the footnote should read as follows: 1. UN General Assembly, “Universal Declaration of Human Rights,” 217 (III) A (Paris, 1948), http://www.un.org /en/universal- declaration-human-rights/ (accessed 6 September 2016).
- In the citation, “217 (III) A” is the document reference, while “Paris” is the location and “1948” is the date. The website is the internet page where the document was found.
- Create a final reference. The final reference in Chicago style will be very similar to the footnote. Basically, only some punctuation and capitalization will be changed to transform it into a final reference and write it at the end of the document.
- The final quote should read like this: General Assembly of the United Nations. “Universal Declaration of Human Rights.” 217 (III) A. Paris, 1948. http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/ (accessed September 6, 2016).
- Only the commas would be changed to periods and the initial letters after the periods would be capitalized.