How Bath Towel Is Made – Material, Production Process, Making, Historical Past, Used, Composition, Product, Industry

Bath towels are woven items of fabric both cotton or cotton-polyester which are used to absorb moisture on the body after bathing. Bath towels are sometimes bought in a set with face towels and wash cloths and are all the time the most important of the three towels. Bath towels are typically woven with a loop or pile that’s tender and absorbent and is thus used to wick the water away from the body. Special looms known as dobby looms are used to make this cotton pile.

Bath towels are usually of a single colour however may be decorated with machine-sewn embroidery, woven in fancy jacquard patterns (pre-decided pc program pushed designs) and even printed in stripes. Since towels are uncovered to a lot water and are washed on sizzling-water wash settings extra steadily than different textiles, printed towels may not retain their sample very long. Most towels have a two selvage edges or finished woven edges alongside the sides and are hemmed (cut and sewn down) at the highest and backside. Some toweling manufacturers produce the yarn used for the toweling, weave the towels, dye them, reduce and sew hems, and ready them for distribution. Others buy the yarn already spun from other wholesalers and only weave the toweling.

Historical past

Until the early nineteenth century, when the textile business mechanized, bath toweling could be relatively costly to buy or time-consuming to create. There is some question how essential these sanitary linens had been for the typical particular person-in spite of everything, bathing was not almost as universally common 200 years ago as it is at the moment! Most 9-teenth century toweling that survives is, indeed, toweling most likely used behind or on high of the washstand, microfiber yoga towel the piece of furniture that held the wash basin and pitcher with water in the days earlier than indoor plumbing. A lot of this toweling was hand-woven, plain-woven pure linen. Fancy ladies’ magazines and mail order catalogs feature fancier jacquard-woven coloured linen patterns (significantly red and white) but these have been extra prone to be hand and face cloths. It wasn’t till the 1890s that the more mushy and absorbent terry cloth replaced the plain linen toweling.

Because the cotton business mechanized on this nation, toweling material could possibly be purchased by the yard as well as in completed items. By the 1890s, an American home-wife could go to the final store or order via the mail either woven, sewn, and hemmed Turkish toweling (terry cloth) or could buy terry cloth by the ‘y’ard, minimize it to the appropriate bath towel size her household favored, and hem it herself. A variety of toweling was out there-diaper weaves, huck-abacks, “crash” toweling-primarily in cotton as linen was not commercially woven on this country in nice amount by the 1890s. Weaving factories started mass manufacturing of terry cloth towels by the end of the nine-teenth century and have been producing them in related style ever since.

Uncooked Supplies

Raw materials include cotton or cotton and polyester, relying on the composition of the towel in manufacturing. Some towel factories purchase the first raw material, cotton, in 500 lb (227 kg) bales and spin them with synthetics so as to get the type of yarn they want for production. Nonetheless, some factories purchase the yarn from a provider. These yarn spools of cotton-polyester blend yarn is bought in large portions in 7.5 lb (3.4 kg) spools of yarn. A single spool of yarn unravels to 66,000 yd (60,324 m) of thread.

Yarn must be coated or sized to ensure that it to be woven extra simply. One such industry coating contains PVA starch, urea, and wax. Bleaches are typically used to whiten a towel earlier than dyeing it (if it is to be dyed). Once more, these bleaches vary relying on the producer, but may embody as many as 10 elements (a few of them proprietary) together with hydrogen peroxide, a caustic defoamer, or if the towel is to stay white, an optical brightener to make the white look brighter. Synthetic or chemical dyes, of advanced composition, which make towels both colorfast and vivid, might also be used.


Most towels usually are not specially designed in advanced patterns. The vast majority is straightforward terry towels woven on dobby looms with loop piles, sewn edges at high and backside. Sizes range as do colours relying on the order. More and more, white or stock towels are despatched to wholesalers or others to decorate with pc-driven embroidery or decorate with applique fabric or decoration. This occurs in a distinct location and is usually achieved by another company.

The Manufacturing



– 1 As talked about above, some factories spin their own yarn for bath towels. If this is completed on the manufacturing facility, the producer receives huge 500 lb (227 kg) bales of both excessive or “middling grade” (of medium quality) cotton for conversion into yarn (quality is dependent upon the producer and high quality of the towel in manufacturing). These bales are broken open by an automated Uniflock machine that nips a bit off the top of every bale, opens it up after which lays it down. The Uniflock opening machine blends the cotton fibers together by repeatedly beating it so impurities fall out or are filtered out (these bales comprise many impurities within the raw cotton). The more pure fibers are blown by way of tubes to a mixing unit where the cotton is blended collectively earlier than they are spun. Here is more information on microfiber golf towel buy stop by our website. Greater high quality towels use cotton with fibers which are blended collectively thrice before spinning. In some factories, the cotton is blended with polyester throughout this blending course of.

– 2 The combined fibers are then blown via tubes to carding machines where revolving cylinders with wire teeth are used to straighten the fibers and proceed to remove impurities before spinning. The cotton fibers, whereas not but yarn, are shaping up into parallel fibers in preparation for spinning.

– Three These parallel fibers are then condensed right into a sliver-a twisted rope of cotton fibers. These slivers are despatched into another machine by which they are blended once more and sent between other rollers for straightening. The ultimate goal is lengthy, straight, parallel fibers because they produce stronger yarns. (Stronger yarns require much less twisting which also produces robust yarns but makes them less smooth and absorbent.) The fibers are wound on a big roll and sent on a cart and fed into the combing machine.

– 4 Fibers are combed right here, further straightening the fibers with a finer set of wire teeth than used on the carding machine. Combing removes the shorter fibers, that are coarser and woollier, leaving the finer, longer, silkier cotton fibers for spinning into yarn. As soon as combed, the fibers are formed right into a twisted rope sliver once more.

– 5 The slivers journey to roving machines the place the fibers are further twisted and microfiber beach towel guide straightened and formed into rovings. The roving frame also slightly twists the fibers. The result is an extended roving of cotton, which is then wound onto bobbins in the ultimate step before spinning.

– 6 Now the roving is ready for spinning. The bobbin is spun on a ring-spinning machine, which mechanically attracts out or pulls the cotton roving out right into a single strand. The fibers primarily catch each other to form one continuous thread and twists the thread barely as it is pulled or Once the toweling is made, it is wound on an off-loom take-up reel. It is then transported to bleaching as big rolls of fabric and put right into a water bath with bleaching chemicals similar to hydrogen peroxide, caustic defoamers, and other proprietary components. All toweling should be dyed pure white before it’s dyed any coloration.

spun. Once the yarn is spun, it is mechanically wound on massive wheels that resemble rounds of cheese when filled with thread.


– 7 Warp is longitudinal threads in a chunk of woven material which can be tightly stretched or warped on a beam. Latitudinal threads referred to as weft or filler are passed under and over the warp to type the fabric. The large spools of simply-spun cotton are able to be warped or wound on a beam that will be inserted into the loom for weaving. If the yarn is bought, the 7.5 lb (3.Four kg) spools are readied for warping. A warping beam is then warped in which threads are anchored and wrapped to a big beam in lots of of parallel rows. Different towel widths require totally different numbers of warp threads.- Eight These huge beams, stuffed with wrapped warp threads, are placed into a rack that holds up to 12 beams and sized in preparation for weaving. The threads must be sized or stiffened to make the piece easier to weave. PVA starch, urea, and wax are rolled onto and pressed into the yarn. The threads are then run over drying cans-Teflon-coated cans with steam heat emanating from with-in. This helps to dry the warp threads quickly. (1,000 warp ends are pulled over 9 cans to dry.) These beams, with coated threads, are now despatched to the looms.


– 9 The beams are picked up by a pallet jack or hydraulic lift truck and transported to looms. These looms range in width but may be as narrow as eighty five in (216 cm) or as extensive as 153 in (389 cm). (Not surprisingly, the wider the loom, the slower the weaving because it takes longer for weft threads to cross the warp.) The beams are lifted onto the looms mechanically with a warp jack, which might bear the weight and measurement of the beam.- 10 Towels are woven on dobby looms, which means every loom has two sets or warp and thus two warp beams-one warp is called the bottom warp and varieties the body of the towel and the other known as the pile warp and it produces the terry pile or loop. Every set of warp threads is carefully fed by way of a set of metallic eyes and is attached to a harness. (Harnesses are separate, parallel frames that can change of their vertical relationships to one another.) These harnesses mechanically elevate and decrease these warp threads in order that the weft or filler could be passed between them. The intersection of the warp and weft is woven fabric. The filler yarn is programmed so that it is loosely laid into the woven fabric. When this loose filler is overwhelmed or pressed into the fabric, the slack is pushed up changing into a little loop. After being dyed, the towel is hemmed and lower into standardized sizes.

Shuttles, which carry the filler threads, are actually shot across these giant looms at prime-speeds-these towel-making looms might have 18 shuttles fired across the warp from a firing cylinder. One shuttle follows right behind the following. As soon as the one shuttle shoots across the warp threads, the shuttle drops down and is transported back to firing cylinder and is shot across once more. A typical towel-weaving machine has 350 shuttle insertions in a single minute-almost six shuttles fired throughout every second. Thus, towels are woven very quickly on these giant mechanized dobby looms. In one small towel-making manufacturing unit, 250 dozen bath towels can be made in one loom in a single week-and there are 50 looms within the manufacturing facility.


– 11 As soon as the toweling is made (it’s one lengthy terry cloth roll and has no starting or finish), it’s wound on an off-loom take-up reel. It’s then transported to bleaching as big rolls of fabric and put right into a water bath with bleaching chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide, caustic defoamers, and different proprietary substances. All toweling should be dyed pure white before it’s dyed any color. The wet toweling laden with chemicals is then subjected to tremendously excessive temperatures. The heat makes the chemicals react, bleaching the towel. The roll is then washed at least as soon as and as many as three times in a large washer to get all chemicals out of the toweling. The toweling is dried, and if it is to stay white toweling, it is ready to be lower at the highest and bottom, lock-stitched sewn, and have a label attached (all of this is completed with one machine).


– 12 If it is to be dyed, the large, dried uncut rolls are taken to massive vats of chemical dyes, which have proven over time to supply colorfast toweling after in depth residential laundering. After being immersed within the vat, the toweling is eliminated and pressed between two heavy rollers which forces the dye down into the toweling. A radical steaming sets the coloration. The toweling is once more steam-dried, fluffed in the drying process, and then the dyed towels are prepared for reducing, hemming, and labeling.

Chopping, folding, and packaging

– 13 Ultimate visual inspection of the cut and hemmed towels happens and they’re handfolded and conveyed to packaging, where computerized packaging gear types a bag around the towels and UPC labels are hooked up to the luggage. These packaged towels are despatched to the stock room, awaiting transport out of the plant.

High quality Control

Towels are rigorously checked for high quality control throughout the manufacturing course of. If yarn is purchased, it is randomly checked for weight and should be the usual established by the corporate (lighter yarn spools point out the yarn is thinner than desired and should not make as sturdy toweling). Bleach and yoga towel dye vats are periodically checked for appropriate chemical constitution.

In the course of the weaving process, some firms pass the cloth over a lighted inspection table. Right here the weavers and high quality inspectors monitor the towel for weaving imperfections. Barely unevenly woven towels could also be straightened out and touched up. But those who can not could also be labeled “seconds” or imperfect or fully rejected by the corporate. As in all points of the method, visual checks are a key to quality management-all involved in the process perceive minimum requirements and monitor the product always.


Potentially harmful byproducts are often blended within the water that’s used to bleach, wash, and dye the towel fabric. Particularly, the bleaching course of consists of substances (peroxides and other caustics) that can’t be discharged untreated into any water provide. Many toweling factories run their very own water remedy plants to insure that the water the plant discharges meets minimum standards for pH, temperature, etc.

The place to Learn More


Montgomery Ward & Co. Spring and Summer season 1895 Catalogue and Buyer’s Guide. NY: Dover Publications, Inc. 1969.

Tate, Blair. The Warp: A Weaving Reference. Ashville, NC: Lark Books, 1991.


Fieldcrest Cannon. “The Making of Royal Velvet Towels.” Unpublished script for a video on towel manufacturing. Kannapolis, NC, 1998.

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